Please ensure Javascript is enabled for purposes of website accessibility Effects of Diabetes on Eye
Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune
(Deemed to be University)
Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Optometry & Visual Sciences
Pimpri, Pune-411 018 (Maharashtra) India.

Effects of Diabetes on Eye

Effects of Diabetes on Eye

Diabetes is a common disease that can affect the heart, kidneys, and eyes. Negligence of diabetes condition can cause blindness.

Rakhi Jawale (SYB Optum.)
February, 20 2023

Diabetes is one of the fastest and most common, occurring systemic disorders.

Conditions such as polydipsia, polyuria, and weight loss are some common symptoms you'll notice.

But have you ever thought about the effects it can cause on your eyes?

An uncontrolled diabetic state can heavily influence your vision. In this segment let’s know about it all.

What is Diabetes Milletus?

Diabetes is a metabolic condition that damages our body when there is too much high level of glucose in the blood.

It leads to serious conditions & affects our body parts such as the Eyes, Kidneys, and Heart.

Diabetes Milletus are of two types:

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: - In which the production of insulin is very least by the pancreas or no production of insulin. This is treated by Insulin.

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: - It is the most common type of diabetes. It takes place when the blood sugar (blood glucose) is very high in range. It can be manageable through Diets & Exercises.

What is Insulin?

Insulin is a hormone secreted by the beta cells of your pancreas, located near your stomach.

What Are the Effects of Diabetes on The Eye?

Diabetic patient’s eye is a group of eye problems (diseases) that can affect people with various ocular conditions such as -

  • Diabetic Retinopathy
  • PDR (Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy)
  • NPDR (Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy)
  • Diabetic Macular Oedema
  • Glaucoma
  • Cataract

Diabetic Retinopathy (DR): -

It is a cause of blindness. It is seen in patients with changes in the retina.

Causes of DR: - It is caused by high blood sugar in the blood, and it damages our retina. Other causes such as Heredity, Smoking, Hypertension, Anaemia, etc.

Risk Factors: Duration of Diabetes

  • After 10 Years- 20% Type 1 and 25% Type 2
  • After 20 Years- 90% Type1 and 60% Type 2
  • After 30 Years- 95% for both Type 1 and Type 2

Symptoms: - Blur Vision, Distorted Vision, Black Spot, Vision Loss

Signs: - Retinal haemorrhage can be seen when examined through OCT and Fluorescein angiography.

Classification of DR: - DR is classified in various forms as follows:

  1. Non-Proliferative DR
  • Mild
  • Moderate
  • Severe
  1. Proliferative DR

Non-Proliferative DR

Non-Proliferative Diabetes: - It is because of the uncontrollability of blood sugar levels & damage to the retinal blood vessels.

Mild NPDR: - It is the first stage of DR that is Identified by the Swelling and Bulging of Blood Vessels in some areas of the Retina.


Moderate NPDR: - It is the second stage of DR and damages the blood vessels in Retina it leaks the blood and fluid in the retinal tissue which causes Loss of Vision.

Moderate NPDR

Severe NPDR: - It is the third stage of DR and in this blood vessels of the retina are blocked and decrease the flow of blood.

Severe NPDR

Proliferative DR: -

It is a very severe condition when the retina starts growing new blood vessels. In this condition, one can lose vision.

Proliferative DR

Management of Diabetic Retinopathy from Optometry P.O.V.: -

Treatment for diabetic retinopathy includes control of diabetes mellitus and its risk factors, by managing diabetes at an early stage of diabetes.

Retinopathy can stop vision problems that are growing, laser treatment (acts toward new blood vessels), Steroids, Eye Injections, and Surgery (removes new blood vessels).

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